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Helicopter Training Flight # 10 - Low G, SWP, Autorotations, Hover Autos, Air Taxi & Quick Stops...

Day 10 – Helicopter Training Flight #10 – Low G, SWP, Autorotations, Hover Autos, Air Taxi & Quick Stops…

Helicopter Training Flight #10 – Low G, SWP, Autorotations, Hover Autos, Air Taxi & Quick Stops…

This is the tenth training flight in a series following a student through his flight training from day 1 to checkride in an R22.

In this lesson we start on Low G (low gravity) hazard and recovery training, an essential part of the Robinson SFAR 73 training requirement for the R22/R44 helicopters (see our post on SFAR 73 training). We also cover Settling With Power (SWP) otherwise referred to as Vortex Ring State (VRS) recognition and recovery.

We continue to work on autorotations and introduce max glide and minimum descent profiles. We also discuss the Robinson Safety Notice on practice autorotations (SN38). I also demonstrate an autorotation all the way down to the flare and recovery a feet above the runway/taxiway.

We use the air taxi to maneuver around the airport and work on building proficiency on quick stops and hover autos.

Below the video are time-stamped notes/tips for the flight.

NOTES/TIPS:

00:10 Always check to make sure control movement is free and ‘normal’ before pickup
00:55 Make sure to think how the wind will affect your pickup
07:30 Crabbing into the wind
08:35 Low G recovery training
13:30 Settling with Power (Vortex Ring State)
18:50 Autorotations at altitude
25:58 Virga
29:00 Eyes outside on entry to autorotation
30:25 Max range & endurance airspeeds
38:50 Robinson Safety Notice on practice autorotations
43:40 Check radios if not hearing any radio calls for a while
46:15 Demonstration of autorotation to flare
54:45 Air taxi & quick stop
57:30 Clear your tail before pedal turns
58:30 Air taxi to maneuver around the airport
1:00:00 Hover auto or simulated engine failure at hover

To view all the videos in this series, check out this YouTube playlist of all the Flight Training Sessions (Full-Length Unedited)

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Helicopter Training Flight #9 - Autorotation Entry, New Airport, Hover Autos...

Day 9 – Helicopter Training Flight #9 – Autorotation Entry, New Airport, Hover Autos…

Helicopter Training Flight #9 – Autorotation Entry, New Airport, Hover Autos…

This is the ninth training flight in a series following a student through his flight training from day 1 to checkride in an R22.

In this lesson we continue to work on entering the autorotation and making a power recovery at altitude.  We also go to another new airport (Sunriver) and work on emergency procedures, governor off operations and hover autos.

Below the video are time-stamped notes/tips for the flight.

NOTES/TIPS:

0:30 Be in the habit of always knowing what the wind will do to you BEFORE you pick up
2:20 Use all visual indicators to help determine wind direction
5:00 Good practice to get 300′ above the ground before turning (in case of engine failure)
6:15 Get baseline for temperatures & pressures once in cruise to see any trend during flight
7:25 Good habit to verbalize actions
10:45 When to switch frequency
11:45 ALT cation light emergency procedure
16:45 Use the A/FD to learn airport traffic pattern and noise abatement procedures#
20:00 Aviate, Navigate & then Communicate
22:00 Get local altimeter settings from UNICOM if no weather reporting service
26:00 Avoid quick/large collective movements
26:45 Airport Advisory
27:50 Demo of approach with non-standard approach path
32:25 Height = options if engine failure
33:40 Watch out for airplanes navigating roads
34:40 MR Temp emergency procedure
39:00 Autorotation entry and recovery at altitude
49:30 Keep eyes outside on entry to autorotation – maintain pitch attitude
53:07 Nose drop on entry
55:20 Control isolation to work on eyes outside to maintain attitude – student with cyclic only
1:02:40 Things to consider when heading in to an airport
1:05:00 Governor off flight
1:07:25 Avoid blade slap over houses – noise abatement
1:11:20 Autorotation to flare demonstration
1:14:20 Hover autos – don’t lower collective!
1:18:25 Rotor downwash diameter
1:19:10 Throttle & pedal work in practice for hover autos
1:24:25 Learning hover autos is hard!
1:26:20 Air taxi & quick stop

To view all the videos in this series, check out this YouTube playlist of all the Flight Training Sessions (Full-Length Unedited)

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Helicopter Training Flight #8 - First Autorotation Entry & Recovery at Altitude

Day 8 – Helicopter Training Flight #8 – First Autorotation Entry & Recovery at Altitude…

Helicopter Training Flight #8 – First Autorotation Entry & Recovery at Altitude…

This is the seventh training flight in a series following a student through his flight training from day 1 to checkride in an R22.

In this lesson we focus on the student entering the autorotation and making a power recovery at altitude.  In autorotation training, it is important to establish a good entry and glide technique before moving onto the flare.

Below the video are time-stamped notes/tips for the flight.

NOTES/TIPS:

0:10 Mag check – if you accidentally go to OFF position
1:40 Keep hand on throttle
3:30 Low RPM warning check – very small movement with collective
4:10 Check weather before pickup
5:40 Setting radio volumes to prioritize
11:35 Line up and Wait
20:50 Be predictable
27:15 Avoiding flow of fixed wing traffic
27:40 Have a safety road for autorotation practice
29:00 Cyclic position and resting wrist to avoid fatigue
30:25 Max climb configuration
31:00 Looking for wires
31:20 Know where the wind is coming from in case of forced landing
32:35 Autorotation entry & recovery at atltitude
34:45 Playing with RPM and descent rate
35:30 Look outside and aft cyclic to maintain attitude
36:40 Practice collective and cyclic for entry without roll off
37:30 Collective down = nose down
41:10 Student first auto entry

To view all the videos in this series, check out this YouTube playlist of all the Flight Training Sessions (Full-Length Unedited)

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Helicopter Training Flight #7 - Flight to New Airport, ALT & Turbulence EPs & Running Landing...

Day 7 – Helicopter Training Flight #7 – Flight to New Airport, ALT & Turbulence EPs & Running Landing…

Helicopter Training Flight #7 – Flight to New Airport, ALT & Turbulence EPs & Running Landing…

This is the seventh training flight in a series following a student through his flight training from day 1 to checkride in an R22.

We continue to build on aircraft control and radio work, but this time add navigation to a new airport – with pattern entry, getting local weather, using the GPS, etc. We also start to push into dealing with some emergency procedures (EPs) such as alternator failure & turbulence. We also introduce running landings and continue to practice hover autos, air taxi, quickstop, hover work and more.

Below the video are time-stamped notes/tips for the flight.

NOTES/TIPS:

0:00 Collective friction on or off? Push knob forward to go (friction off)
0:30 Low RPM warning system check
1:05 Situational Awareness (SA) before picking up (runways, weather/wind, traffic, etc)
3:25 Review radio calls (in your head or out loud) before pulling the trigger
4:50 2 stage pickup
5:50 Starting to take on Pilot in Command (PIC) responsibilities (clearing etc)
6:50 Clear taxi way intersections
7:20 Make radio call before taking runway, slow down & don’t rush
7:50 Full clearing for base traffic
8:35 Landing traffic has priority
9:35 Last visual check before taking runway
10:35 Try not to bounce cyclic
11:20 Climb to 500′ & 60 kts to have some energy & time for engine failure
11:50 Right crosswind radio calls
12:30 Know local airplane traffic altitudes
13:50 Turbulence emergency procedure (EP)
14:35 Use of GPS Nearest feature and making a position report
17:25 Know what temp and pressure is when at cruise to see if anything changing
17:50 Alternator Warning Light EP
19:50 Watch out for traffic when crossing powerline
22:30 Importance of using the airport name on Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF)
23:30 Use the size of a runway (roughly 1 mile) to help estimate distance (how many runways could you fit between you and the airport)
24:50 Wind assessment inbound to an airport with no automated weather reporting
25:50 Avoid the flow of fixed wing traffic
30:20 No bouncing cyclic
32:20 Assess wind socks in downwind and change runway if need be
36:50 Climb speed
37:20 Cross wind leg
38:00 Learning plateaus
39:20 Low Approach
41:50 Variable local winds
46:20 Hover work – pirouettes
47:10 Difference between left and right pedal turns
48:50 Air taxi – avoid quickstop with tailwind (Vortex Ring State)
50:10 Airtaxi with tailwind – very careful stop
52:50 Radio calls for unnamed taxiways
53:30 Know how much fuel to get back with reserves
56:30 Left cross wind affecting tail rotor performance
56:50 Just speak plain English to ask other aircraft intentions
1:00:10 Use crosswind calls when helpful to other traffic
1:01:05 Crossing wires at towers
1:03:50 Check fuel status before diverting
1:05:15 Manifold pressure limits go down as you climb
1:05:40 Air moves like water over terrain – downdrafts on lee side
1:07:30 Blade slap – how to avoid it
1:10:25 Crab angle or wind correction angle
1:11:20 Radio call structure
1:12:00 Using wind to estimate runway in use
1:12:40 How to enter the traffic pattern using a 45 degree angle to downwind
1:14:05 ‘Closed’ traffic
1:20:40 FAA fuel requirements
1:25:30 Running landing demonstrated
1:33:10 Hover autos
1:35:50 No he didn’t
1:36:24 Small cyclic movements
1:36:50 Hover autos with control isolation
1:40:25 Don’t focus on the spot on set downs
1:40:50 3 shut down items memorized
1:42:35 Higher inertia rotor systems = safer higher hover
1:43:20 Fuel reserves – planned vs actual

To view all the videos in this series, check out this YouTube playlist of all the Flight Training Sessions (Full-Length Unedited)

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Helicopter Training Flight #6 - Autorotation Entry, Hover auto, Vortex Ring State

Day 6 – Helicopter Training Flight #6 – Autorotation Entry, Hover Auto, Vortex Ring State

Helicopter Training Flight #6 – Autorotation Entry, Hover Auto, Vortex Ring State

This is the sixth training flight in a series following a student through his flight training from day 1 to checkride in an R22.

This starts to introduce some more advanced maneuvers – entering an autorotation, hover autos (simulated engine failure at hover) and vortex ring state (otherwise known as settling with power). We also did some advanced hover work (pirouettes) and practiced air taxi and quick stop maneuvers.

Below the video are time-stamped notes/tips for the flight.

NOTES/TIPS:

 

00:05 How to check magnetos
02:28 Keep frictions on while setting up radios etc
03:50 Wind direction and runway selection
05:20 ‘Dog leg’
06:20 Know local flight operations (gliders on tow for example)
09:05 Check power required in stable hover
11:05 Clear taxiway intersections
12:05 Operating with gliders & tow aircraft
14:10 Crosswind departure radio call
15:37 Stay below airplane traffic in pattern
16:10 Best climb rate speed
18:40 Vortex Ring State otherwise known by some (FAA) as Settling with Power
21:20 Not the only recovery technique…
28:20 Demo of autorotation entry at altitude
35:10 Hover practice pedal turns
36:20 Hover practice pirouette turns
37:10 Air taxi and Quickstop
44:00 Downwind checks
49:15 Hover autos (simulated engine failure at hover)
57:00 Memorize first three steps to shut down (75% RPM, frictions & cool down timer)

To view all the videos in this series, check out this YouTube playlist of all the Flight Training Sessions (Full-Length Unedited)

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Helicopter Training Flight # 5 - Takeoff, Approach & Ground Reference Maneuvers

Day 5 – Helicopter Training Flight #5 – Takeoff, Approach & Ground Reference Maneuvers

Helicopter Training Flight #5 – Takeoff, Approach & Ground Reference Maneuvers

This is the fifth training flight in a series following a student through his flight training from day 1 to checkride in an R22.

This flight continues to build student skills and confidence on the basics of approaches, patterns, hover work & radio calls. We work on a ‘sight picture’ of a normal approach angle (which is very subjective). We demonstrate the torque effects of collective up and down twisting the helicopter left and right. We also introduce ground reference maneuvers – trying to fly around set landmarks and adjusting for wind.

Below the video are time-stamped notes/tips for the flight.

NOTES/TIPS:

00:00 Low RPM check
00:35 Stow lose items away from open door
00:45 Which runway?
02:00 Conflicting traffic…
02:20 “Standby”
04:50 Clear before entering movement area
06:15 Clear & call before crossing hold short line (even rotor blades)
09:45 Stay in trim for better climb rate
10:05 Avoiding the flow of fixed wing traffic
11:00 Right or left traffic? And downwind checks
11:40 Extending downwind for spacing with left traffic
13:00 Final approach options & giving “1 mile final” call
13:30 Sight picture for normal approach (GoPro angle will look different than what I described)
14:20 As collective is raised and left pedal is added as we approach a hover, the tail rotor thrust increases and pushes the helicopter right
14:30 Also, the increase in torque makes the nose want to yaw right, especially if we have a left crosswind messing with the tail rotor (tail rotor vortex ring state)…
14:50 Cockpit checks prior to take off – a good habit
15:10 Demo of take off – countering the pitch/roll and yaw as the accelerate through Effective Translational Lift (ETL)
16:05 Volume of radios and clearing all around before turning – another very good habit
17:00 Try to locate/visualize the position of aircraft reporting on the radio – part of good situational awareness
17:50 Downwind checks – cockpit checks, wind socks & landing options (runway/taxiways in use/free, etc)
17:20 Discussion of start of LTE from left crosswind
19:35 Demo of landing
19:57 Again sightly different angle from GoPro (mounted above our eye line)
20:40 Starting to pull up collective & add slight forward cyclic to stop the nose popping up
21:50 As the rotor system increases efficiency going through ETL, the manifold pressure drops and inch or two (engine not working so hard) so you can pull up the collective slightly to get back up to your power limit and increase the climb rate
23:05 Add up collective as you turn to compensate for the loss of vertical lift
27:55 Lower hover = less power requirement = less torque & less left pedal required
28:15 “Take off 34” not “Taking 34…”
29:00 Push forward against the nose trying to pop up as you go through Transverse Flow Effect (TFE)
29:55 Fly runway extended center line – be aware of wind drift
31:15 Ground Reference Maneuvers
32:15 Right Trim (cruise trim applied)
32:30 Turn around a point (orbit)
38:30 Keep looking for traffic
39:40 Keep in mind noise complaints by avoiding low & repetitive flight paths
41:45 Try to avoid blade slapping (and so noise complaints) by avoiding shallow descent rate at speed
44:30 Eyes outside, looking for traffic more than usual approaching an airport
45:30 Use taxiways when possible to free up the runway to the fixed wing traffic
47:30 Don’t forget to check and disengage right trim (if used) on final…
48:15 Know what the wind is going to do to the helicopter before picking up

To view all the videos in this series, check out this YouTube playlist of all the Flight Training Sessions (Full-Length Unedited)

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Helicopter Training Flight # 4 - Air Taxi, Quick Stop (Rapid Deceleration), LTE, Hovering & Patterns

Day 4 – Helicopter Training Flight #4 – Air Taxi, Quick Stop (Rapid Deceleration), LTE, Hovering & Patterns

Helicopter Training Flight #4 – Air Taxi, Quick Stop (Rapid Deceleration), LTE, Hovering & Patterns

This is the forth training flight in a series following a student through his flight training from day 1 to checkride in an R22.

This flight continues to build on the basics from the first few flights – allowing the student to get a feel for the controls while covering approaches, patterns, hover work & radio calls. We also introduce air taxi and quick stop (otherwise known as a rapid deceleration) and discuss loss of tail rotor effectiveness (LTE).

Below the video are time-stamped notes/tips for the flight.

NOTES/TIPS:

00:01 Carburetor Heat Required?
06:30 Instructor Pickup
08:30 Student taxi to runway
09:50 We make a call to take off 16 (no one in run up areas), but Cherokee 75Z also makes a call as we take off (we missed it – need to set higher volume on COM1 and not talk over radio calls)
10:50 Cherokee takes off and turns inside our downwind turn.
11:20 Don’t bounce the cyclic
11:30 Keep nose level in turn
12:15 “Not cool”
20:07 Pickup & set downs
22:47 Take off – pushing through the nose up
25:47 Conflicting traffic (Columbia) landing opposite to our runway (calm wind runway is 16 at BDN)
29:47 Practice for running landing 🙂
42:09 Classic onset of Loss of Tail Rotor Effectiveness (LTE)
45:47 Demo of set down & pick up
49:32 LTE avoidance tip
50:19 Airtaxi
50:52 Demo of quickstop
53:47 Hover maneuvers
58:02 Verify runway with compass
58:20 Common runway incursions at uncontrolled airports….
58:40 Take off – push through ETL etc
59:25 Change up of runway from 16 to 34

To view all the videos in this series, check out this YouTube playlist of all the Flight Training Sessions (Full-Length Unedited)

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Helicopter Training Flight # 3 - Camera facing down over controls - pickup/setdown, hover & patterns

Day 3 – Helicopter Training Flight #3 – Camera facing down over controls – pickup/setdown, hover & patterns

Helicopter Training Flight #3 – Camera facing down over controls – pickup/setdown, hover & patterns

This is the third training flight in a series following a student through his flight training from day 1 to checkride in an R22, this time with the camera facing down over the controls more.

This flight continues to build on the basics from the first few flights – allowing the student to get a feel for the controls while covering approaches, patterns and hover work. We also try to get the student to make some radio calls depending on their progress.

Below the video are time-stamped notes/tips for the flight.

NOTES/TIPS:

00:30 Frictions checks
00:40 Don’t let the governor run away with RPM
01:05 Low RPM check
03:00 Demo of hover taxi – watch how small the control movements are
04:30 Always know where the wind is coming from
05:00 Clearing taxiway intersections
05:10 Take off radio calls
06:00 Take off – watch cyclic movements
09:00 Check wind socks on downwind
10:00 Watch the cyclic movements in the turns
11:00 Approach – watch controls
12:10 Don’t bounce the cyclic – add pressure & holds
13:05 Delay in the controls
14:10 Noise abatement
15:30 Double check wind socks! Change up the traffic pattern… maybe
19:00 Demo approach to hover & take off – watch controls
22:30 Radio calls – “on” vs “turning”
23:30 Why lose airspeed in turn?
23:20 Pedals when lowering collective
26:30 Hover work

To view all the videos in this series, check out this YouTube playlist of all the Flight Training Sessions (Full-Length Unedited)

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Helicopter Training Flight # 2 - More hovering, approaches & patterns...

Day 2 – Helicopter Training Flight #2 – More Hovering, Approaches & Patterns…

Day 2 – Helicopter Training Flight #2 – More hovering, approaches & patterns…

This is the second training flight in a series following a student through his flight training from day 1 to checkride in an R22. This flight continues to build on the basics from the first flight – allowing the student to get a feel for the controls while covering approaches, patterns and hover work. We also try to get the student to make some radio calls depending on their progress. This flight also covers start-up, shut down, a go-around and air taxi.

Below the video are time-stamped notes/tips for the flight.

Note that the voice volume is low until headsets are on (6:45). 

NOTES/TIPS:

6:45 Headsets on and voice volume audible
07:30 Guarding controls as a passenger gets in and out
07:50 Checklist – go one/two above last line when interrupted
08:20 25 PSI in first 30 seconds or…
10:40 Keep left hand on throttle and Crew Resource Management
11:25 Why we keep our hand on the throttle
12:58 Sprag clutch check
13:54 Why we keep our hand on the throttle FOR REAL!
14:30 Manifold pressure limits for the day
15:05 Rolling up over 80% but slowing the governor
16:15 Roll DOWN for low RPM warning check – fingernails up
17:00 All the green – but where in the green?
17:30 Volume levels
19:25 Before every pickup – where is the wind coming from?
20:10 Instructor demos a pickup
20:15 Friction off check
24:20 Instructor demos a take off
24:35 Student takes control
24:55 Avoid the flow of fixed wing traffic…
25:20 300′ above ground level (AGL) before making turns & clear before turns
26:10 Downwind checks
26:25 Is it a right or left downwind?
26:50 Review your options for landing while on downwind
27:20 Extended downwind
28:10 Base leg – look out for final traffic & other base traffic
28:50 Pre-landing check
29:07 Approach angle – sight picture
29:25 Loose grip on throttle
30:05 Go around
31:22 Plan to get hover and approach work come together
32:00 Upwind leg
34:30 Always check final approach and other base before turning final
35:40 Always check wind on final
36:10 Air taxi over to Bravo taxiway
37:20 Air taxi to hover taxi
38:00 Pick up pedals & collective only
39:00 Pedal turns in hover (student on pedal & collective only)
40:20 Tail wind in a hover
41:40 Tail Rotor Vortex Ring State
42:20 Set down (student on pedals & collective down)
43:50 Hover taxi (student on cyclic only)
45:00 Watch horizon to see attitude & pendulum effect/delay
47:35 Pressure more than movement on the cyclic
48:20 Hover in place during pedal turns (student on cyclic only)
50:20 Set down & pickup (student on cyclic only)
50:45 Loose grip on cyclic
53:54 Hover work (student on all controls)

To view all the videos in this series, check out this YouTube playlist of all the Flight Training Sessions (Full-Length Unedited)

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Helicopter Training Flight # 1 - Hover work, Approaches and Patterns

First day – Helicopter Training Flight #1 – Hover work, Approaches and Patterns

Helicopter Training Flight #1 – First day of flight helicopter training – Hover work, Approaches and Patterns

This is the first in a series of posts following a student from first day of flight training, through solo, night and day cross country, to final check ride prep flight. We had one 30 minute ‘demo flight’ prior to official training. The student also has about 10 hours previous helicopter experience, mainly in a Schweitzer 300C from a few years ago. This is the student pilot’s very first helicopter training flight in an R22, in Bend, Oregon, with Instructor Jay of Helicopter Training Videos.

The first lessons typically involve some basic flight manuevers at altitude, some approaches (to low approach with a go-around/take off) and pattern work. If the student progresses well, we try to incorporate some basic radio calls and maybe some attempt at hover work.

Below the video are time-stamped notes/tips for the flight.

NOTES/TIPS:

0:15 After-engine started checklist
2:25 Automated AWOS Weather
4:15 Reaching to pull anything on lower console – two stages – identify first!
6:25 Make sure frictions are off
6:35 Don’t allow the governor to fully race the RPM up!
7:00 Fingernails up so you can only roll down, roll slowly & watch the RPMs
8:15 Turn on Nav and Landing Lights just prior to pick up to notify visually we are about to ‘fly’
8:35 Always know where the wind is coming from on pick up and how it will affect you
8:45 Initial radio call – doesn’t student sound like a Pro!?
9:02 Make sure you add “Bend” to start AND end of radio call
9:12 Make sure your student/passenger knows what carb heat is before they are asked to pull it
9:23 Pick up – two stage pickup
10:10 Clear your tail before any pedal turn
11:10 Radio volumes – priority on CTAF
12:30 Why do we keep the left door on?
12:48 Wake Turbulence
15:10 On take off – clear above!
15:15 Add more up collective as MAP drops due to increased rotor efficiency
16:05 Downwind Checks
18:50 Approach
19:15 Below 30 knots call out
20:50 Student takes controls
25:05 Great first pattern – low approach only
25:35 Trim Strings
25:45 Delay on inputs
26:20 Pull up on collective on turns to maintain altitude/climb
26:50 Add Bend to start and end of call
27:20 Consider landing options and wind direction
29:50 Go around
30:30 Altitude (500′) & Airspeed (60 kts) = safer
33:30 On Base vs Turning Base
34:40 Go Arounds
41:10 Clearing taxiways before exiting a runway
42:45 Student pedals only
43:10 Why we keep heading aligned with movement (engine failure)
45:45 Left foot only pedal turns
46:00 Always clear tail before pedal turns
49:40 Always check we are safe to fly before picking up
51:18 Only loose grip on throttle – two fingers & thumb
51:20 Student on collective only
53:00 Student has collective & pedals
56:20 Student Pickup
58:00 Demos Air Taxi
1:01:15 Tail Resonance or Sympathetic Resonance

To view all the videos in this series, check out this YouTube playlist of all the Flight Training Sessions (Full-Length Unedited)

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